Monday, February 10, 2020

The effect of electricity supply on Nigeria economy in Oyo state Dissertation

The effect of electricity supply on Nigeria economy in Oyo state - Dissertation Example This study has been made to find the answer to the following questions: How has monopolization in the power sector by the government affected the availability of electricity in the country? Has liberalization led to greater access to electricity at the commercial levels in the state? The Nigerian economy is a developing economy and a major portion of its gross domestic product is a contribution from the small enterprises operating indigenously. For big commercial purposes as well as for small-scale businesses in the modern day scenario electricity is indispensable. There is a unidirectional relationship between electricity consumption of a country and gross domestic product of that country. Nigeria has been plagued with perennial problems of energy crises for almost two decades now; problems are an erratic supply of electrical power is prominent among them. According to the reports published by the government of Nigeria, only 45 percent of the population in the country can consume el ectricity in their daily needs. Among them, a meager 25 percent are rural dwellers. There are vast potential for development in the country for growth in terms of setting up provisions of electricity. The rural states in the country, such as Oyo are yet to have enough access to electricity. This necessitates a study on electricity supply in the states in Nigeria. This study takes Oyo as a representative of the rural areas in the economy to conduct a research on this statement regarding the level of consumption of electricity by the country’s small businesses.... This study has been made to find answer to the following questions: How has monopolization in the power sector by the government affected availability of electricity in the country? Has liberalization led to greater access to electricity at the commercial levels in the state? Therefore the main research question can be stated as â€Å"How has the supply of electricity in Oyo State in Nigeria affected the small businesses in the state?† The study would be conducted following a guideline of certain specific objectives. These objectives would help the researcher concentrate on the aim of conducting the research thereby helping her to complete the research successfully. The research objectives are as mentioned below: To study the level of electricity supply in the rural areas in Nigeria To understand the extent to which commercial and industrial activities in these areas are dependent on electric power To study how modern policy changes have affected power supply in the rural area s in the country Project approach This section of this project is dedicated to present a summarized project plan. The aim of this project is to study a serious issue that has far reaching effects in the social, political and economic spheres in the country. However, this research work is constrained by several factors, such as time and resources, and therefore devising an appropriate project plan is very much necessary (Blackwell, n.d.). This plan sets the context of the research, the design of research and the methodology to be followed (Bangor University, 2013). The project plan is made taking into consideration the theme of the project and the competence of the researcher who is going to execute the relevant activities that the study would

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Employing Heuristics Essay Example for Free

Employing Heuristics Essay A heuristic is an informal and usually a quick solution to a problem. These quick solutions or strategies are based on one’s experiences in dealing with problems and in things that are related to that problem. In can be represented by the idiomatic expression â€Å"rules of thumb’ or in simpler terms, common sense, educated guesses, or judgments based on intuition (Kahneman, 1982, p. 39). That having been defined, we can say that the boss’s reaction was as it was due to his limited knowledge of the inner workings of a Volvo car. The only thing he knows about Volvos is based on the experience his brother-in-law had with a certain car of the same brand. That experience being negative, it is inevitable for the boss to react negatively as well. One possible way to sway the boss’s perception of the vehicle is to make him see and experience the vehicle for himself and prove that his perception of the car is wrong. Give him a first hand experience of the car since what he knows about the car is based only on second hand knowledge. Let him inspect the car for himself. Give him a ride in it. Let him drive it. However, his idea of the car may already be corrupted and he may already have formed biases regarding it. This will greatly affect his judgment of it. A way to avoid this may be to conceal the brand of the car to him at first. This will prevent his biases from clouding his judgment. Once he has made his unbiased decision regarding the vehicle, that’s when the brand of the car may be revealed to him. If the likes the performance of the car, he will be surprised to find out that it was a Volvo. If not, he’d probably have this I-told-you-so attitude. Now that you’ve got your boss’s attention, maybe its time you told him about more details regarding the Volvo; about its features and about what sets it apart from a the others. The Volvo Group, a Swedish Company, supplies not only cars but trucks, busses, construction equipments and various transport solutions as well. With this variation, we can say that the company knows what they are doing with regard to vehicles. They’ve been around since April 14, 1927, founded at Gothenburg City. In 1999, the car division of the company was sold to Ford which is an even more reputable car manufacturer. An example of a luxury car under the company brand is the S80 luxury sedan car which presented a new idea of what luxury cars should be. It has superb luxury features which make its looks stand out among other cars. Its engine is created with an advanced technology and can be expected to perform the way modern cars should. And of course, the feature that the brand has been known for, comfort and safety, is something that Volvos can truly be proud of. Safety always comes first anyway. Some more features that the car can boast is its consoles like digital climate controls and the Dolby Pro-Logic II/Dynaudio surround sound system which increases the level of its being a luxury car. t also has stylishly shaped headlamps, soft exterior body curves, and warm color tones which are all made from high quality materials. Its most unique feature, with its state of the art security systems, is the adaptice cruise control with collision warning and brake support. This feature warns the driver of impending collisions and can prevent severe accidents from happening. This is just one car from the brand. We can be sure to expect no less from the other models they manufacture.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Holocaust :: essays research papers

This is a story of how a young boy and his family lived through the holocaust. It begins in a town called Transylvania. The young boy was Elizer Weisel, one of four children and the only son. Elie was very spiritual, in which he wanted to find a master in Sighet to instruct him in the Zohar (the cabbalistic books, the secrets of Jewish mysticism). Moshe the Beadle was a poor man of the town that lived humbly. He was the one that would begin teaching Elie the Zohar.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  But one day, Moshe the Beadle, was expelled from Signet by the Hungarian police. He and others were crammed into box cars on a train. Several months had passed when Moshe the Beadle was spotted sitting in a bench in town. He began to tell his story of the terror he encountered. They were taken to a Polish territory where the Gestapo was in charge. They climbed into trucks and were driven into a forest where they dug their own graves. Then the Gestapo began firing at the Jews and throwing babies in the air as flying targets. Moshe was shot in the leg and pretended to be dead. Moshe began to make the journey home telling the horror that he experienced. No one could believe such an unimaginable story. The people just simply thought that he had gone mad. He begged people to believe his story but no one would.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Elie’s family listened to the London radio every evening. It was at the end of 1942 life had returned to normal. Bu the spring of 1944 all the Jews of Sighet were convinced that Germany’s defeat was near and they were all safe from harm. They even doubted Hitler wanted to exterminate them. But one day, they heard that German troops had entered Hungarian territory which brought on some anxiety. Then they moved on to Budapest where the Jews there were living in fear and terror. The Jews of Signet convinced themselves that the Germans would not move any further. But three days later German army cars had appeared in the streets. The officers were put up in private homes even some Jewish homes. Their first impressions of the Germans were mostly reassuring. They were calm, likeable, polite and sympathetic. The synagogues were closed.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The week of Passover they gathered at private houses to celebrate, but their hearts were not into it because of what was happening to their town.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Hegemony and Modern Culture

Hegemony and modern culture (TV documentary script) [Shots of banks, shops, people walking down shopping streets Grafton Street, the Mall in Tralee, Oliver Plunket Street in Cork as voice over speaks] â€Å"Not since the time of Antonio Gramsci has the notion of hegemony been so relevant in Ireland today. But what is hegemony? [Image of Gramsci] Hegemony is the phrase adopted by Antonio Gramsci from Marx to explain how social structures evolve. [Scenes of Regina Cali prison] Antonio Gramsci was born in Italy in 1891. After university, in deference to the fascist Mussolini ruling government he became involved in left wing activity.As a result of this he was arrested in 1928. While in the Regina Cali prison he studied the whole idea of hegemony. He wanted to find out why the weaker forces do not fight back, why do they bow down to their oppressors. He adapted the meaning of hegemony. He realized that it is not just concerned with how the ruling classes operate (as Marx had proposed). Gramsci felt that â€Å"what was missing was an understanding of the subtle but pervasive forms of ideological control and manipulation that seemed to perpetrate all repressive structures†1.He also found that the weaker group had their part in it by accepting the ruling class’s authority. This is the kernel that we are concerned with. This is the theory that we are going to apply to modern culture in Ireland today. Not just why modern culture is imposed but what are the subtle manipulations of this culture and also what is our part in acquiescing to them. [Cut to images of Irish legends Cuchulainn, Fionn mac Cumhaill, Deirdre of the sorrows] We used to have a culture rich in language, dance, storytelling, education, generosity and a love of the simpler things in life.It had evolved from years of myths and legends passed down from generation to generation. We lived by a code of traditions and values. Later we became colonised by England we were robbed of our language an d as a result the stories that made up our culture. Nevertheless we fought back until we gained our independence but already serious changes had occurred in our culture- the culture of money had crept in . Yeats commented on it in September 1913 What need you, being come to sense, But fumble in a greasy till And add the halfpence to the pence And prayer to shivering prayer, untilYou have dried the marrow from the bone; For men were born to pray and save; Romantic Ireland's dead and gone, It's with O'Leary in the grave. 3 [Images of cash tills and money] Consumerism has been growing steadily ever since, but its more than consumerism it’s a greed, an insatiable desire, an endless hunger for the next shiny object. The care for our fellow human beings has been replaced by this self propulsion . Recently we have been woken from a glut of consumerism, obsessed by the price of property and handbags and plunged into an abyss of recession. Now is the time to question what happened?Wha t is our culture? Who are the forces that change it and what is our part in adopting this culture as our own? Firstly what is our culture? Culture is anything that engages us socially. It is the media, television, newspapers, magazines, books, internet, art, music and dance. It is all of these and it is more. It is the way we think, the way we live and the things we believe in. Today in Ireland what is most prevalent is the culture of consumerism. Buoyed by the economic boom that was known as the Celtic tiger consumerism grew and grew. Borrowing increased as sales increased on luxury cars.Items such as handbags became known as must haves, the prices of houses escalated at an astonishing rate. Consumer spending increased by 36% in the period 1999 to 20042. As a nation we became gripped with a greed for goods. Where did this come from? Everyday we are bombarded with images of products and goods. The average person sees over a hundred ads a day. The media is littered with advertising. Most fashion magazines and television stations are run by the revenue generated by advertising. So we can observe how Gramsci’s theory is working, we are being governed by the media to buy these products.But what about the other side, why do we comply so easily. Is it because as a colonised state we are easily duped and behave like sheep. There is clearly proof for this . Because consumerism is our new God, we work all hours to acquire more money. Modern life is riddled with apathy. People don’t revolt any more and this is an essential part of Gramsci’s model. In order for a social structure to grow it needs to revolt. We did in the 1920’s when we gained our political freedom so why not again? Because people today are too busy being distracted by the media.Throughout the media we are shown the perfect way to live, what we need to purchase it, to attain that lifestyle and most importantly what we should be thinking. Open the supplement to The Sunday Times newspaper, not only will it tell you what artists are cool and current it will also give you a meter to what’s hot and not. There is usually a spread on a designer or artist with a photo shoot of their house. The following page has a guide as to where you can purchase items that are similar. We are filling our lives and our homes with products in the hope that they will give us an identity, a look a brand.But it goes further than this. Behind this cult of consumerism is a need for something stronger, the constant seeking that can never be found. In order for it to fill us it would have to be spiritual. We have made a false God of the media. Looking to it to sustain us, to give us direction and it can’t because it’s not based on spiritual principals. Our increasing lack of faith in Catholism had edged us more towards our readiness to believe in something else, something that makes us feel good, safe, and important. All the things the media claims to do.Social net working sites convince us we are important, that people are interested in what we say and want to see photos of us. The whole thing is ego based revolving around the church of me. As individuals become more obsessed with themselves, encouraged by the media (‘because we’re worth it’) to buy more products, watch more programmes that reiterate the ideology of Me and read more papers that tell you what to buy, community spirit is wasting away to nothing. In order for us to get any way out of this mess we need to look to Gramsci once again. We need to revolt.We need to stop consuming for the wrong reasons. We need to think about our purchasing. We need to become consciously aware of what we are doing. We need to start asking questions? Where is my money going? Is it helping communities or causing farmers to lose their farms? Why do they sell Riverock a Coca-cola product instead of Kerry Spring in the college canteen? Because that’s the reality; every time you p urchase something you set a chain of events into motion . Now we’re aware of our power there is no going back. We need to start a revolution.Some trailblazers have already started with Fair-Trade leading the way with putting a conscience into consumerism. In the field of fashion people like Kellie Dalton are paving the way forward for fashion with a conscience. Her work and the work of others at Redress. ie are helping make fashion more ethical. Hopefully with this growth in conscience a sense of community can once return to our shores and this will replace the endless seeking of self in the wrong places. [cue Titles Accompanied with Rage against the Machine â€Å"Take the Power Back†]Sources 1 http://www. nternationalgramscisociety. org 2 HYPERLINK â€Å"http://www. davy. ie/content/pubarticles/wmc20070730. pdf† http://www. davy. ie/content/pubarticles/wmc20070730. pdf 3 â€Å"September 1913† WB Yeats HYPERLINK â€Å"http://www. re-dress. ie/† htt p://www. re-dress. ie/ Irish Times Magazine, (Saturday Oct 31, 2009) The Sunday Times Style Supplement (Sunday Oct 25th, 2009) Cultural Theory, An Introduction, Philip Smith and Alexander Riley (Blackwell Publishing) pgs 35 – 37 HYPERLINK â€Å"http://www. victoryiscertain. com/gramsci† http://www. victoryiscertain. com/gramsci http://links. org. au/node/1260

Monday, January 6, 2020

Lanthanides - Properties of Element Groups

The lanthanides or F Block elements are a set of elements of the periodic table. While there is some dispute over which elements to include in the group, the lanthanides generally include the following 15 elements: Lanthanum (La)Cerium (Ce)Praseodymium (Pr)Neodymium (Nd)Promethium (Pm)Samarium (Sm)Europium (Eu)Gadolinium (Gd)Terbium (Tb)Dysprosium (Dy)Holmium (Ho)Erbium (Er)Thulium (Tm)Ytterbium (Yb)Lutetium (Lu) Here is a look at their location and common properties: Key Takeaways: Lanthanide The lanthanides are a group of 15 chemical elements, with atomic numbers 57 through 71.All of these elements have one valence electron in the 5d shell.The elements share properties in common with the first element in the group -- lanthanum.The lanthanides are reactive, silver-colored metals.The most stable oxidation state for lanthanide atoms is 3, but the 2 and 4 oxidation states are also common.Although the lanthanides are sometimes called the rare earths, the elements are not particularly rare. However, they are difficult to separate from one another. The D Block Elements The lanthanides are located in block 5d of the periodic table. The first 5d transition element is either lanthanum or lutetium, depending on how you interpret the periodic trends of the elements. Sometimes only the lanthanides, and not the actinides, are classified as rare earths. The lanthanides are not as rare as was once thought; even the scarce rare earths (e.g., europium, lutetium) are more common than the platinum-group metals. Several of the lanthanides form during the fission of uranium and plutonium. Lanthanide Uses The lanthanides have many scientific and industrial uses. Their compounds are used as catalysts in the production of petroleum and synthetic products. Lanthanides are used in lamps, lasers, magnets, phosphors, motion picture projectors, and X-ray intensifying screens. A pyrophoric mixed rare-earth alloy called Mischmetall (50% Ce, 25% La, 25% other light lanthanides) or misch metal is combined with iron to make flints for cigarette lighters. The addition of 1% Mischmetall or lanthanide silicides improves the strength and workability of low alloy steels. Common Properties of the Lanthanides Lanthanides share the following common properties: Silvery-white metals that tarnish when exposed to air, forming their oxides.Relatively soft metals. Hardness increases somewhat with higher atomic number.Moving from left to right across the period (increasing atomic number), the radius of each lanthanide 3 ion steadily decreases. This is referred to as lanthanide contraction.High melting points and boiling points.Very reactive.React with water to liberate hydrogen (H2), slowly in cold/quickly upon heating. Lanthanides commonly bind to water.React with H (dilute acid) to release H2 (rapidly at room temperature).React in an exothermic reaction with H2.Burn easily in air.They are strong reducing agents.Their compounds are generally ionic.At elevated temperatures, many rare earths ignite and burn vigorously.Most rare earth compounds are strongly paramagnetic.Many rare earth compounds fluoresce strongly under ultraviolet light.Lanthanide ions tend to be pale colors, resulting from weak, narrow, forbidden f x f optical transitions.The mag netic moments of the lanthanide and iron ions oppose each other.The lanthanides react readily with most nonmetals and form binaries on heating with most nonmetals.The coordination numbers of lanthanides are high (greater than 6; usually 8 or 9 or as high as 12). Lanthanide Versus Lanthanoid Because the -ide suffix is used to indicate negative ions in chemistry, the IUPAC recommends members of this element group be called lanthanoids. The -oid suffix is in keeping with names of another element group -- the metalloids. There is a precedent for a name change, since an even earlier name for the elements was lanthanon. However, nearly all scientists and peer-reviewed articles still refer to the element group as the lanthanides. Sources David A. Atwood, ed. (19 February 2013). The Rare Earth Elements: Fundamentals and Applications (eBook). John Wiley Sons. ISBN 9781118632635.Gray, Theodore (2009). The Elements: A Visual Exploration of Every Known Atom in the Universe. New York: Black Dog Leventhal Publishers. p. 240. ISBN 978-1-57912-814-2.Holden, Norman E.; Coplen, Tyler (2004). The Periodic Table of the Elements. Chemistry International. IUPAC. 26 (1): 8. doi:10.1515/ci.2004.26.1.8Krishnamurthy, Nagaiyar and Gupta, Chiranjib Kumar (2004). Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths. CRC Press. ISBN 0-415-33340-7McGill, Ian (2005) Rare Earth Elements in Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a22_607

Sunday, December 29, 2019

When States Seceded During the American Civil War

The American Civil War was made inevitable when, in response to growing Northern resistance to the practice of slavery, several Southern states began to secede from the union. That process was the end game of a political battle that had been undertaken between the North and South shortly after the American Revolution. The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 was the final straw for many southerners. They felt that his goal was to ignore states rights and remove their ability to own slaves. Before it was all over, eleven states seceded from the Union. Four of these (Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee) did not secede until after the Battle of Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861. Four additional states were Border Slave States that did not secede from the Union: Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware. In addition, the area that would become West Virginia was formed on Oct. 24, 1861, when the western portion of Virginia chose to break away from the rest of the state instead of seceding. Order of Secession During the American Civil War The following chart shows the order in which the states seceded from the Union.   State Date of Secession South Carolina December 20, 1860 Mississippi January 9, 1861 Florida January 10, 1861 Alabama January 11, 1861 Georgia January 19, 1861 Louisiana January 26, 1861 Texas February 1, 1861 Virginia April 17, 1861 Arkansas May 6, 1861 North Carolina May 20, 1861 Tennessee June 8, 1861 The Civil War had many causes, and Lincolns election on Nov. 6, 1860, made many in the South feel that their cause was never going to be heard. By the early 19th century, the economy in the South had become dependent on one crop, cotton, and the only way that cotton farming was economically viable was through the use of very inexpensive slave labor. In sharp contrast, the Northern economy was focused on industry rather than agriculture. The Northerners disparaged the practice of slavery but purchased slave-supported cotton from the South, and with it produced finished goods for sale. The South viewed this as hypocritical, and the growing economic disparity between the two sections of the country became untenable for the South. Espousing States Rights   As America expanded, one of the key questions that arose as each territory moved towards statehood would be whether slavery was allowed in the new state. Southerners felt that if they did not get enough slave states, then their interests would be significantly hurt in Congress. This led to issues such as Bleeding Kansas where the decision of whether to be free or slave was left up to the citizens through the concept of popular sovereignty. Fighting ensued with individuals from other states streaming in to try and sway the vote.   In addition, many southerners espoused the idea of states rights. They felt that the federal government should not be able to impose its will on the states. In the early 19th century, John C. Calhoun espoused the idea of nullification, an idea strongly supported in the south. Nullification would have allowed states to decide for themselves if federal actions were unconstitutional—could be nullified—according to their own constitutions. However, the Supreme Court decided against the South and said that nullification was not legal and that the national union was perpetual and would have supreme authority over the individual states. The Call of Abolitionists and the Election of Abraham Lincoln With the appearance of the novel  Uncle Toms Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe  and the publication of key abolitionist  newspapers like The Liberator, the call for the abolition of slavery grew stronger in the north. And, with the election of Abraham Lincoln, the South felt that someone who was only interested in Northern interests and anti-slavery would soon be president. South Carolina delivered its  Declaration of the Causes of Secession, and the other states soon followed. The die was set and with the Battle of Fort Sumter on April 12–14,1861, open warfare began.   Sources Abrahamson, James L. The Men of Secession and Civil War, 1859-1861. The American Crisis Series: Books on the Civil War Era, #1. Wilmington, Delaware: Rowman Littlefield, 2000. Print.Egnal, Marc. The Economic Origins of the Civil War. OAH Magazine of History 25.2 (2011): 29–33. Print.McClintock, Russell. Lincoln and the Decision for War: The Northern Response to Secession. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008. Print.

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Drug And Alcohol Treatment Of Alcoholics Anonymous And...

Twelve step programs are commonly used in drug and alcohol treatment. Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous both utilize the twelve steps, along with many other treatment centers. The twelve steps are used as a tool to stay sober and overcome addictions to substance abuse. The first step involves admitting one is powerless over the drug. It also involves admitting that due to the drug, one is no longer in control of his or her life. The second step is coming to the belief that there is a greater power that can restore one to sanity. The greater power can be anything from God to a higher power such as nature. The third step is making the decision to turn one’s will and life over to the higher power. This is when an individual fully commits oneself to the belief in something greater than him or her self. The fourth step is a moral inventory of oneself. Many individuals make a list of all the wrongs he or she has done while in the fourth step. (Alcoholics Anonymous Publish ing, 1981) The fifth step involves admitting to a higher power, oneself, and other people the exact nature of the offenses one has committed. The sixth step is preparing oneself to have a higher power remove the character defects. Asking the higher power to remove the deficiencies is step number seven. Step eight is making a list of the individuals harmed in one’s addiction and preparing oneself to make amends with those people. Step nine is fulfilling step eight and making those amends with hurtShow MoreRelatedNA Reaction paper1370 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿ Narcotics Anonymous (NA) meeting Reaction Paper Denisha Hightower Morgan State University Dr. Anthony Estreet 4/15/15 The Narcotics Anonymous meeting which I attended was named 7 Days of NA which was located on 1212 North Wolfe Street at an organization called Dee’s Place. 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